Introduction From the first day in graduate school in psychology, psychotherapists and counselors 1 in training have been instructed to pay great attention to the "inherent power differential" in psychotherapy, to be aware of the "imbalance of power between therapists and clients", and they have been repeatedly told to "never abuse or exploit our vulnerable and dependent clients.
As early asthe prominent psychoanalyst Ernest Jones, raised a concern about the assumption of therapists' omnipotence, and labeled it as the "God syndrome. Ethics texts and risk management advice columns in our professional newsletters have all presented a similar unified message about therapists' unilateral power and clients' inherent vulnerability.
While the universal assumption about the "power differential" is like an undercurrent in the fields of psychology, psychiatry, psychotherapy, and counseling, there is paradoxically a split between the ethicists, risk management experts and boards who over-emphasize the "power differential", and the clinicians and the theoreticians who largely avoid or ignore any reference to power Heller, Clinicians tend to ignore the issue of power that is a reflection of the culture at large that often associates power with coercion, abuse, or injustice, in order not be perceived by themselves or others as controlling and dominating Proctor, The exceptions to the rule have been some feminist, humanist, narrative and postmodern psychotherapists.
As a result, the discussion of power has been primarily confined to ethics and risk management classes, licensing boards and court hearings. In these settings the emphasis has been on harm and on the supposed vulnerability of clients to therapists' immense power and influence.
Many psychotherapy or counseling clients are, indeed, distressed, traumatized, anxious, depressed and therefore vulnerable.
Many others are also very young, impaired and vulnerable and can be easily influenced by their therapists. Then, on the other hand, other clients are strong, authoritative and successful. Many modern day consumers seek therapy to enhance the quality of their lives, improve their loving relationships or find meaning and purpose for their lives.
They are neither depressed nor traumatized nor vulnerable. A more inclusive look at power reveals that the power differential in some instances is completely valid, but in many other instances it is a myth.
The error is to see the power differential as always relevant - as if all clients are the same and all therapist-client relationships identical. Despite the evident fact that some therapists and counselors are successful and powerful while many others struggle financially and are, at times, emotionally fraught, the faulty belief that all therapists hold ultimate power over all their clients lives on.
Throughout this paper, the context of the material will make it obvious when it discusses the valid power differential and when it refers to the myth. While there seems to be a consensus on therapists' power over their clients, there are four views regarding this power.
The minority group is composed of those who are highly critical of psychotherapy and counseling in general. The majority of scholars and ethicists i. They view it as potentially harmful if abused and warn against such misuse of power.
The third group is composed of feminist, humanist, existentialist and postmodern scholars i. A fourth perspective was introduced by Lazarus in his ground breaking article titled "The illusion of the therapist's power and the patient's fragility: Exploring the myth of therapists' omnipotence and patients' fragility" c.
This latter approach is the main theme of this paper. It looks at power as dynamic rather than static Zur, It refutes the notion that power in therapy is exclusively possessed by therapists, and it equally rejects the simplistic notion that power is imposed by therapists exclusively on their clients.The Internet may also be used as a forum for expanding social networks and, consequently, enhancing the chance of meaningful relationships, self-confidence, social abilities, and social support.
Personality differences and social media addiction People with high self esteem and extraverted personalities tend to have larger social networks, and use them for social enhancement, while introverts tend to have smaller groups of online friends and use social networking sites (SNS) to compensate for their lack of real-world social activity.
Chapter 10 Society’s Dependence on Information Systems Introduction The nature of risk is being changed by section of the United States including all of New York City, is an example.
Ch. 10—Society’s Dependence on Information Systems. The Internet and the media also report on specialized clinics that treat these addictions in countries as widely dispersed as the United States [4,5], China [6,7], Germany, and Spain.
Consequently, the public may come to believe in excessive use of these technologies or maladaptations, both common phenomena in the adaptation to new technologies. Establish and maintain an advanced infrastructure for seismic monitoring throughout the United States that operates with high performance standards, gathers critical technical data, and effectively provides information products and services to meet the Nation's needs.
The law would incorporate experiences of other countries, including the Energy Policy Act of of the United States, he said. China now has four specific energy laws, covering the coal industry, electric power, energy conservation and renewable energy as .