Typically they are classified as "passive" and "active".
Deployment[ edit ] Twelve satellites were built, six of the Vela Hotel design and six of the Advanced Vela design. The Vela Hotel series was to detect nuclear tests in space, while the Advanced Vela series was to detect not only nuclear explosions in space but also in the atmosphere.
Their apogee was about one-third of the distance to the Moon. The first Vela Hotel pair was launched on October 17, one week after the Partial Test Ban Treaty went into effect, and the last in They had a design life of six months, but were only actually shut down after five years.
Advanced Vela pairs were launched inand They had a nominal design Hotel monitoring system of 18 months, later changed to seven years.
However, the last satellite to be shut down was Vehicle 9 inwhich had been launched in and had lasted nearly 15 years. The second pair of satellites launched on July 17,and the third on July 20, The last launch miscarried slightly when one Atlas vernier engine shut down at liftoff, while the other vernier operated at above-normal thrust levels.
This resulted in a slightly lower than normal inclination for the satellites, however the mission was carried out successfully. The problem was traced to a malfunction of the vernier LOX poppet valve. Three more sets were launched on April 28,May 23,and April 8, The last pair of Vela satellites operated untilwhen they were finally shut down, the Air Force claimed them to be the world's longest operating satellites.
They remained in orbit until decaying at the end of Instruments[ edit ] The original Vela satellites were equipped with 12 external X-ray detectors and 18 internal neutron and gamma-ray detectors.
They were equipped with solar panels generating 90 watts. The Advanced Vela satellites were additionally equipped with two non-imaging silicon photodiode sensors called bhangmeters which monitored light levels over sub-millisecond intervals. They could determine the location of a nuclear explosion to within about 3, miles.
Atmospheric nuclear explosions produce a unique signature, often called a "double-humped curve": The effect occurs because the surface of the early fireball is quickly overtaken by the expanding atmospheric shock wave composed of ionised gas.
Although it emits a considerable amount of light itself it is opaque and prevents the far brighter fireball from shining through.
As the shock wave expands, it cools down becoming more transparent allowing the much hotter and brighter fireball to become visible again. No single natural phenomenon is known to produce this signature, although there was speculation that the Velas could record exceptionally rare natural double events, such as a meteoroid strike triggering a lightning superbolt in the Earth's atmosphere, as may have occurred in the Vela Incident.
Additional power was required for these instruments, and these larger satellites consumed watts generated from solar panels.
Serendipitouslythe Vela satellites were the first devices ever to detect cosmic gamma ray bursts. Vela Incident Some controversy still surrounds the Vela program since on 22 September the Vela 5B also known as Vela 10 and OPS  satellite detected the characteristic double flash of an atmospheric nuclear explosion near the Prince Edward Islands.
Still unsatisfactorily explained, this event has become known as the Vela Incident. President Jimmy Carter initially deemed the event to be evidence of a joint Israeli and South African nuclear testthough the now-declassified report of a scientific panel he subsequently appointed while seeking reelection concluded that it was probably not the event of a nuclear explosion.
An alternative explanation involves a magnetospheric event affecting the instruments. Electronic thresholds provided two energy channels, 3—12 keV and 6—12 keV.Guest Room Management System is a solution for the management and supervision of hotel and welcoming establishments.
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Try Now. Widely used throughout the United Kingdom during the past five years with great success, the Hotel Bed Bug Monitoring System is a proactive early warning system for the detection and control of bed bug infestations in hotels, dorms, healthcare facilities, and group homes. Vela was the name of a group of satellites developed as the Vela Hotel element of Project Vela by the United States to detect nuclear detonations to monitor compliance with the Partial Test Ban Treaty by the Soviet Union..
Vela started out as a small budget research program in It ended 26 years later as a successful, cost-effective military space system, which also provided.
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