The knowledge, skills, and abilities people of today possess offer limitless opportunities to maximize work center effectiveness. People not only come in all shapes and sizes, but they come with different motives, values, and personality types as well. They are individuals, with as many similarities from one person to the next as they have differences. Group dynamics are the interactions that influence the attitudes and behavior of people when they are grouped with others through either choice or circumstance.
Overview[ edit ] Chester Barnard recognized that individuals behave differently when acting in their organizational role than when acting separately from the organization.
One of the main goals of organizational behavior is "to revitalize organizational theory and develop a better conceptualization of organizational life". Although there are similarities and differences between the two disciplines, there is still confusion around differentiating organizational behavior and organizational psychology.
The Industrial Revolution is a period from the s where new technologies resulted in the adoption of new manufacturing techniques and increased mechanization.
In his famous iron cage metaphor, Max Weber raised concerns over the reduction in religious and vocational work experiences. Weber claimed that the Industrial Revolution's focus on efficiency constrained the worker to a kind of "prison" and "stripped a worker of their individuality".
Weber analyzed one of these organizations and came to the conclusion that bureaucracy was "an organization that rested on rational-legal principles and maximized technical efficiency. All three of them drew from their experience to develop a model of effective organizational management, and each of their theories independently shared a focus on human behavior and motivation.
Taylor advocated for maximizing task efficiency through the scientific method. Named after automobile mogul Henry Fordthe method relied on the standardization of production through the use of assembly lines. This allowed unskilled workers to produce complex products efficiently.
Sorenson later clarified that Fordism developed independently of Taylor. The success of the scientific method and Fordism resulted in the widespread adoption of these methods. In the s, the Hawthorne Works Western Electric factory commissioned the first of what was to become known as the Hawthorne Studies.
These studies initially adhered to the traditional scientific method, but also investigated whether workers would be more productive with higher or lower lighting levels. The results showed that regardless of lighting levels, when workers were being studied, productivity increased, but when the studies ended, worker productivity would return to normal.
In following experiments, Elton Mayo concluded that job performance and the so-called Hawthorne Effect was strongly correlated to social relationships and job content. A range of theories emerged in the s and s and include theories from notable OB researchers such as: These theories underline employee motivation, work performanceand job satisfaction.
Simon, along with Chester Barnardargued that people make decisions differently inside an organization when compared to their decisions outside of an organization. While classical economic theories assume that people are rational decision-makers, Simon argued a contrary point.
He argued that cognition is limited because of bounded rationality For example, decision-makers often employ satisficingthe process of utilizing the first marginally acceptable solution rather than the most optimal solution.
This gave rise to contingency theoryinstitutional theoryand organizational ecology. Current state of the field[ edit ] Research in and the teaching of OB primarily takes place in university management departments in colleges of business.
Sometimes OB topics are taught in industrial and organizational psychology graduate programs. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.
June Learn how and when to remove this template message There have been additional developments in OB research and practice. Anthropology has become increasingly influential, and led to the idea that one can understand firms as communities, by introducing concepts such as organizational cultureorganizational rituals, and symbolic acts.In an organizational context, groupthink and group behavior are important concepts as they determine the cohesiveness and coherence of the organizational culture and organizational communication.
For instance, unless the HRD function communicates the policies clearly and cogently, the employees. Group dynamics is impacted by individual needs or goals which affect interpersonal relationships within the group.
One of the realities of organizational behavior is that we must work in and with groups to accomplish objectives. Organizational Behavior and Organizational Change Groups & Teams Roger N. Nagel Senior Fellow & Wagner Professor Lehigh University.
Group members rationalize any resistance to the assumptions they have made. There appears to be an illusion of unanimity. Page Page This is a derivative of Organizational Behavior by a publisher who has requested that they and the original author not receive attribution, which was originally released and is used under CC BY-NC-SA.
This work, unless otherwise expressly stated, is licensed under a Creative Commons [license_name] License. The definition of organizational behavior also states that it is the study and application of sociology, psychology, communication and management of the individuals in an organization.
Organizational behavior and employee behavior modification encompasses four models that most organizations work out of. Organizational Group Behavior and Communication People are an organization’s most important and valuable resource.
How they interact and communicate can be one of the most important aspects of an organization’s success.