Essays in Honor of Gerhard E. A Reply to Hirschfeld et al.
Farah Palmer Gender and equal citizenship have been the subject of controversy since the 19th century. Gender discrimination continues to provoke public debate and political activism in the early 21st century. The state and other powerful and until very recently solidly male institutions, such as the clergy, professional groups and trade unions, have all shaped and used these ideas in ways that have profoundly affected women.
It centred on marriage, motherhood, and taking care of husband, home and children.
It also had a profound effect on public culture, which focused almost entirely on men and their interests. Areas of discrimination There has been discrimination on the basis of gender in many areas of life, including marriage and family, employment, education, culture, religion and sport.
Discrimination against men In the s and early 21st century some people argued that there was discrimination against boys and men in certain areas, including education, and the custody of children after divorce. In another area — health — men became concerned about lack of action on prostate cancer and male suicide.
Responses to discrimination For women, change between the midth century and the early 21st century has been profound. There have been two periods of intense activism. Many women also worked to repeal the Contagious Diseases Act which legalized inspection of women for venereal disease and their confinement for compulsory treatment.
This legislation was repealed in Married women got the right to hold property in their own name and enter into contracts independently of their husbands.
In the s, s and s there was another explosion of activism, this time focusing on broad cultural issues, the representation of women in politics, employment issues, and sexuality and reproductive rights.
Outside these periods work to bring about change continued. For example, struggles over different pay rates for women and men in the same job and low pay for women-dominated occupations occurred from the s into the 21st century.
However, there was no steady improvement, and discrimination sometimes grew worse in certain areas. Human Rights Commission Act These bursts of activism prompted legal change. Open discrimination on the basis of sex — for example, in employment — has been unlawful since the Human Rights Commission Act was passed.
The Human Rights Act barred discrimination on grounds of sexual orientation, pregnancy, marital status including living in a de facto relationship and family status including having or not having responsibility for care of children or other dependants. The 21st century Full equality and citizenship requires much more than changes in the law, and in the early 21st century deep-seated inequalities remained.
There was also a surge of concern, prompted by overseas revelations, about sexual harassment of women by men in workplaces.anthropology; archaeology; architecture; art.
art criticism; literary criticism; film theory; biology; composition studies; criminology. pathways perspective; economics. Analyzes the social causes of gender inequality. Explores origins, economics, politics, power, sexuality, violence, ideology, and other potential causes.
The outpouring of research and commentary on gender inequality over the past half century has been extraordinary. a causal analysis of some aspect of gender inequality related to the week's issue, building on the materials we read (in brief papers of a couple pages).
taken together over time influence the understanding of gender in a.
American Minority Groups Review 1 (Textbook) STUDY. PLAY. Affirmative action tries to compensate for inequality, it has been seen as a controversial issue and reverse discrimination. How did restrictionist immigration policies develop in . JSTOR is a digital library of academic journals, books, and primary sources.
Gender discrimination continues to provoke public debate and political activism in the early 21st century. The meaning of equal citizenship has been much more complex and controversial for women than for men, because it has centred on changing ideas about women and ‘women’s role’.