The New Jersey constitution of enfranchised all adult inhabitants who owned a specified amount of property. Laws enacted in and referred to voters as "he or she", and women regularly voted. A law passed inhowever, excluded women from voting in that state.
Water, like religion and ideology, has the power to move millions of people. Since the very birth of human civilization, people have moved to settle close to water. People move when there is too little of it. People move when there is too much of it.
People journey down it. People write and sing and dance and dream about it. People fight over it. And all people, everywhere and every day, need it.
We need it for drinking, for cooking, for washing, for food, for industry, for energy, for transport, for rituals, for fun, for life. And it is not only we humans who need it; all life is dependent on water to survive.
But we stand today on the brink of a global water crisis. The two major legacies of the 20th Century - the population and technological explosions - have taken their toll on our water supply. More people lack drinking water today than they did two decades ago. More and more freshwater sources are being used-up and contaminated.
Most of the solutions to the crisis must be developed and implemented locally, and always with the view that water is not to be taken for granted, or unjustly appropriated by particular groups for particular needs.
Water is the most important single element needed in order for people to achieve the universal human right to "a standard of living adequate for the health and well-being of himself and his family.
To do otherwise would be nothing less than a crime and history will rightly judge current generations harshly for it. Human solidarity is the only force capable of facing a task of this magnitude. There must be solidarity in international and regional governance; there must be solidarity between sectors and stakeholders; and there must be political will amongst governments to work in good faith both with their neighbors and with their own people.
These people, including often marginalized groups such as women and minorities, must have a voice, and the information and means necessary to use it.
Without water security, social, economic and national stability are imperiled. This is magnified where water flows across borders - and becomes crucial in regions of religious, territorial or ethnic tension. In some cases, as between India and Pakistan over the Indus River, successful cooperation over water resources can be cited as proof that even states with difficult relations can work together.
In other cases, the opportunities to improve regional relations which a common watercourse presents have not yet been grasped. Water has been a fundamental security matter in the arid Middle East since antiquity.
The allocation, use and rights to the increasingly scarce water resources of this volatile region remain sensitive, and potentially explosive, issues.
Water is also largely sidelined, or hidden, in the mainstream peace negotiations. Hanan Sher of The Jerusalem Post sheds light on the trials and tribulations encountered on the road towards achieving water for peace in the Middle East, a road which I myself have recently revisited.
Earlier this year I met with Prime Minister Barak, Chairman Arafat and King Abdullah of Jordan, and obtained their commitment to work with my organization, Green Cross International, and our partners, the Center for Middle East Peace and Economic Cooperation, to find solutions to the escalating regional water crisis.
These three leaders explicitly recognized that there can be no unilateral solutions to their essentially trans-boundary water problems.
This is as true in the Middle East as it is regarding watercourses shared between the United States and its neighbors. While armed, inter-state conflicts over water are unlikely, it must be remembered that these are not the only types of conflicts facing water-stressed societies.
Internal conflicts between ethnic groups, regions, users and small communities can and do arise over water. Inter-state cooperation is essential to the search for regional water solutions.
Where such solutions are not easily forthcoming, international mediation and support should be available. A movement to provide such support has been initiated by Secretary of State Madeleine Albright with the establishment of a Global Alliance for Water Security.The table below presents an abbreviated geologic time scale, with times and events germane to this essay.
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Indian Independence Movement and India Essay Independence Day, observed is a national holiday in India commemorating the nation's independence from British rule on 15 August the major key that triggered Gandhi’s thought of Satyagraha movement was his participation in the South Africa movement between to